Know your Solar installation

    Know your Solar installation

    In this section we compile 11 solar tips so you can know the characteristics and peculiarities of a solar installation. Carry out a correct sizing of it and make the most of the advantages that solar energy offers you. Let us begin…

    Distribution of a Solar Installation systemDistribution of a Solar Installation system

    1 Council

    INSTALLATION IN DIRECT CURRENT (12v) OR IN ALTERNATING CURRENT (220v):

    Did you know..? Before starting to size an installation, it will be important to determine the use that we are going to give it. If it is a home or shelter where we only want to install lighting and where there is little wiring, the installation can be done at 12v so it will not be necessary to install a power inverter. In this case, the low consumption light bulbs to be used will be 12v.
    If, on the other hand, complementary use of conventional electrical appliances in your home such as TV, appliances, refrigerator, etc., or long-distance lighting installations is required, a power inverter from 12v (direct current) to 220v (direct current) will be used. alternating).

    2 Council

    CHOOSE REGULATOR ACCORDING TO THE POWER OF INSTALLED PANELS:

    Did you know..? To correctly choose the power of the regulator, it will be necessary to see the technical sheet of the panel or panels that make up the installation. The short circuit current will be taken as the value (data indicated as ISC). If the installation only has one panel whose ISC = 8,2 Amperes, a 10A regulator will be necessary. If you have several panels, this value will be multiplied by the number of connected panels. That is, if you have 4 130W panels, the total ISC will be 32,8 amps, so a 40A solar regulator will be necessary.

    3 Council

    THE INCLINATION OF THE PANELS ACCORDING TO THEIR SEASON OF USE:

    Did you know..? During an installation, it is important to determine the degree of inclination of the solar. This will depend on the use we want to give to the installation:
    If we want constant use throughout the year, the ideal would be to give the panel an inclination equal to the latitude of the place plus 18º, the same as what we would set if the installation were only for winter use. This is done this way since it is the most suitable inclination for winter, when there is less solar intensity and it is necessary to maximize it. 
    However, in summer, it is advisable to place the panels at an angle of inclination equal to the latitude of the place minus 18º.

    4 Council

    THE USE OF AN INVERTER – CHARGER IN A SOLAR INSTALLATION:

    Did you know..? For installations where high electricity consumption is required at a specific time, it is recommended to have an external support source such as a generator set. When used, the part of the energy that is not consumed will be used by the charger to charge the installation's batteries, improving the availability of energy for any other use. The fact that there is an inverter-charger allows you to have both functions in the same device, a power inverter from 12 or 24V to 220V and a battery charger. It is important to choose the model appropriate to the power of the installation.

    5 Council

    THE IMPORTANCE OF USING A PURE WAVE INVERTER:

    Did you know..? In installations that require the use of appliances, computer, refrigerator, TV or other type of electrical device, it is recommended to use a pure wave power inverter. These inverters generate a perfect current wave like the one you have in your home and that allows excellent operation of any 220V device. 

    Modified sine wave inverters generate an electronically modified wave which can cause operating problems with complex electronic equipment, but will work well with other devices.

    6 Council

    WIRING TO BE USED IN THE SOLAR INSTALLATION:

    Did you know..? The diameter of the wiring to be used in an installation will depend on the power of the installation as well as its voltage (12V or 220V). In the part of the installation that operates at 12V and that goes from the solar panel to the regulator, wiring with a minimum diameter of 4mm2 will be used, depending on the panel power. In the rest of the installation, if it operates entirely at 12V, wiring of at least this thickness will also be used.
    When dealing with medium or high power installations, it will be necessary for them to operate at 220V (use of an inverter) which will allow the transport of a large amount of energy with a cable with a section of 1,5mm2, 2mm2 or up to 4mm2.
    It is recommended to determine the cable section in each section of the installation using this application: Calculate the cable section.

    7 Council

    THE MOST DELICATE PART OF AN INSTALLATION, THE BATTERIES:

    Did you know..? The battery is the most delicate element of a solar installation, and its correct sizing will greatly influence optimizing its useful life. For a solar installation it is essential to use deep cycle batteries, whether of the monobloc, AGM, Gel o Stationary. These batteries allow large discharges, making them ideal for solar installations where significant and continuous consumption is required. Unlike these, conventional batteries such as those in cars allow only low discharge percentages and their useful life is very short.

    8 Council

    PUT A MONOBLOCK OR AGM SOLAR BATTERY?:

    Did you know..? If we carry out a small or medium-sized installation, solar-type batteries can be used. monobloc O well AGM . The use of one model or another will depend on whether we use appliances with a motor: refrigerator, refrigerator, washing machine, dishwasher or water pump. In this case, AGM batteries should be used since they withstand the starting peaks of these devices well without affecting the useful life of the battery.

    If other devices without a motor or very low power motors are used, be it a television, DVD, microwave, mixer, lighting, computer, extractor, etc., the monoblock solar battery model can be used.

    It is very important to respect the use of each battery since incorrect use will make its useful life very short, which will have an impact on the customer's pocket.

    9 Council

    OPzS, TOPzS, UOPZS, OPZV and MSP STATIONARY BATTERIES:

    Did you know..? For installations that require a large amount of accumulation in batteries, it is recommended to use so-called stationary batteries. These batteries are formed by adding 6 2v cells, obtaining 12v of operation, and by adding 12 cells, obtaining 24v of operation. They have an extraordinarily low self-discharge level and a high deep discharge capacity.

    10 Council

    MPPT TYPE REGULATORS AND THEIR USE:

    Did you know..? It will be necessary to use MPPT regulators when in our isolated solar installation we use grid-connected solar panels, that is, 24v panels with a power in watts equal to or greater than 200w. EI that are commonly used in solar farms. 
    Unlike the 12v and 24v isolated panels that generate a voltage of 18v and 36v respectively, the grid connection panels generate a voltage very close to 24v, thus adding the losses that occur in the transport of this current. towards the batteries, a voltage ends up reaching below 24v. This means that if a normal regulator is used, the battery cannot find the balance between the energy it accumulates at 24v and the energy that comes from said panels at a lower voltage. Which ends up causing irreparable damage to the battery. The MPPT regulator maximizes the voltage so that it reaches the batteries at a level similar to that of the isolated panels, allowing its accumulation in the batteries optimally.
    A 24v isolated panel and a grid connection panel will be differentiated in that the maximum voltage point (in the panel's technical sheet: Vmp) of the isolated panel will be similar to 36 Volts, while in a grid connection panel It will only be 29v or similar.

    11 Council

    HOW TO KNOW THE CHARGE LEVEL OF A SOLAR BATTERY ACCORDING TO ITS VOLTAGE:

    Did you know..? A solar battery will indicate a certain voltage depending on the level of charge it is in at any given time. This is very useful to know exactly your charge percentage. To do this, it is necessary to watch it at rest, that is, at least one hour after disconnecting the loads (either from the panels or from an external source such as a generator set). The ideal time is at night, when there is no longer any sun and when the plates do not generate electricity. It must be done this way since as long as the batteries receive current, their voltage will be distorted and will not be the real one. 

    The following voltage/charge level relationship is suitable for all types of solar batteries, whether monoblock solar, AGM, Gel or stationary batteries:

    BATTERY CHARGE LEVEL IN A 12v SOLAR INSTALLATION

    Battery at 100% (fully charged) = 12,7 V (volts)
    Battery at 75% = 12,5 V
    Battery at 50% = 12,2 V
    Battery at 30% = 12 V
    Discharged battery = 11,6V

    BATTERY CHARGE LEVEL IN A 24v SOLAR INSTALLATION

    Battery at 100% (fully charged) = 25,4 V
    Battery at 75% = 25 V
    Battery at 50% = 24,4 V
    Battery at 30% = 24 V
    Discharged battery = 23,2V

    BATTERY CHARGE LEVEL IN A 48v SOLAR INSTALLATION

    Battery at 100% (fully charged) = 50,8 V
    Battery at 75% = 50 V
    Battery at 50% = 48,8 V
    Battery at 30% = 48 V
    Discharged battery = 46,4V

    Contact Us to receive more information.

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